Because of the limited numbers of female participants of Hispanic, Asian, and Polynesian ancestry in the LEAN Program during the years under study, data from members of these groups were not included in the current analysis.


There were 111 African-American and European-American active-duty Army and Navy female service members who enrolled in the LEAN Program between July 1998 and December 2001. The mean age was 28 years old. Of the 111 females, 55 were European-American and 56 were African-American (Table 1). Six-month data was available for 65 of the 111 women (59%). Of the initial 56 African-American females who enrolled in the LEIAN program, 26 African-American females, or 46%, had follow-up data at six months, compared to 71% of European-American females. The African-American females had statistically significantly higher attrition rates than the European-American females (Table 1). Similar studies have found attrition rates of African-American females to be 40-50%. There was no significant difference in initial weight or one- and three-month weight loss percentages and attrition between the women who enrolled in the program and those who participated for six months. There was also no significant difference between African Americans and European Americans who remained in the LEAN Program for six months and those who did not with respect to age, height, education, or the number of weekly follow-up sessions attended. cialis canadian pharmacy

Table 1

Enrolled in LEAN

Remained in the Program

Retention Rate

for Minimum of Six Months

African Americans                                 56



European Americans                              55



African Americans/European Americans     111



X2 (1, N=lll)=2.027, p<0.05**

A number of participants did not have six-month data available because of pregnancy, duty assignment relocation, deployment, or military discharge. It is also possible that some participants either met military weight or body fat standards and subsequently did not continue the program or chose to drop out due to lack of progress. kamagra soft tabs


The patient files of the 111 females who enrolled in the LEAN program between July 1998 and December 2001 were reviewed. Information used for analysis was obtained from the LEAN Program Questionnaire, LEAN database, and weight logs kept in the patients’ files from the inception of the program through the six-month follow-up. Patients who completed a minimum of six months (N=65) were included in the study.


The LEAN Program Questionnaire, a self-report screening measure, was used to determine program eligibility and appropriateness and provided some of the initial comparison data for this study. The questionnaire documents the patient’s weight history, previous attempts, eating habits, and exercise frequency. Height, weight, BMI, age, and years of education were obtained at the screening and maintained in the LEAN database. Changes in weight and the number of weekly follow-up visits were carefully documented in the weight logs by the LEAN Program staff during the weekly follow-up visits.

A 2×2 factorial design with a mixed (between and within) design was used to compare pretreatment and six-month post-treatment weights, weight loss differences between European-American and African-American participants, and the interaction effect of the treatment and ethnicity.