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Tag: clinical impact

Management of Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Infections: ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT OPTIONS

The association between antibiotic use, increasing rates of resistance, and clinical treatment failure underlines the importance of optimizing antibiotic use in patients with community­acquired RTIs. Table 1 summarizes the key attributes to consider in selecting an antibiotic for empirical treatment; these include (1) the spectrum of activity, (2) the potential of the antibiotic to induce […]

Management of Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Infections: Clinical and Economic Effects of Resistance

The clinical impact of in vitro antibiotic resistance has been difficult to assess, given that most community-acquired RTIs are treated in the outpatient setting, in which microbiological data are rarely collected before treatment is begun. The most compelling evidence to date surrounds the possible association between macrolide resistance and adverse clinical outcomes. Reviews of the […]

Management of Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Infections: ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

Resistance Trends Surveillance studies conducted in the U.S. over the last decade have revealed significant levels of in vitro resistance to beta-lactams among all major respiratory pathogens. Approximately 30% of S. pneumoniae isolates are nonsuscep-tible to penicillin, and a similar proportion of H. influenzae isolates produce beta-lactamase, which mediates resistance to ampicillin (Principen, Apothecon),  (e.g., […]

Management of Community-Acquired Respiratory Tract Infections

INTRODUCTION In the U.S., community-acquired respiratory tract infections (RTIs), including acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS), community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB), are prevalent conditions and constitute a substantial socioeconomic burden. Indeed, infections of the lower respiratory tract (i.e., CAP and AECB) represent a particular public health concern because of the morbidity and […]