The study included all (1,317) youth (15-24 years of age) homicides in New Jersey’s 21 counties for an eight-year period, 1989-1997. Figure 1 shows that young age is disproportionately associated with an increase of lethal violent crime. The highest peak of age-specific homicide incidence rate is among young adults aged 20-24 years. The racial disparity of African-American/white homicide incidence rates in Table 1 shows that African-American adolescents (15-19 years) were about 10 times and African-American young adults (20-24 years) were about four times more likely than white counterparts to be murdered in 1997. Racial disparities in both age groups (15-19 years and 20-24 years) are highly significant (p<0.01). Table 1 shows that the young adult (20-24 years) homicide rates are higher than adolescents (15-19 years) for all racial/gender categories, except for African-American females whose rate is about five times higher for adolescents than for young adults.

Figure 1. Age-SpecMc Homicide Rate

Figure 1. Age-Specific Homicide Rate/100,000 Population, New Jersey, 1997

Table 1. Youth Homicide Rate/100,000 Population in New Jersey and USA

Counties

Rate

% Distri­bution w В M

F

PCI

Population Density/ Square Mile

Urban­ization Index

%0-12 Grade

%HS/ College Grad

20-24 Popu­lation

%B

%W
Atlantic 28

5

28.7

31.1

41.4

14.1

$16,016

368

68%

0

100

21

77

Bergen 0

0

0

0

0

0

$24,080

3351

100%

0

0

7

88

Burlington 0

0

0

0

0

0

$17707

477

72%

0

0

22

76

Camden 56.5

19

66.9

32.5

92.1

21.1

$15,773

2233

98%

88

12

19

78

Cape May 43

2

48.1

0

40.7

45.7

$15,536

209

23%

100

0

7

92

Cumberland 48.8

5

33.5 99

46.7

51.1

$12,560

206

60%

100

0

22

77

Essex 65.5

38

8.6

129.3

121.7

8.3

$17,574

6008

100%

50

50

46

51

Gloucester 7.2

1

8.2

0

14.5

0

$15,207

678

82%

100

0

9

90

Hudson 10.4

5

11.1

14.9

15.3

5.3

$14,480

9145

100%

75

25

18

75

Hunterdon 17.7

1

19.9

0

31.6

0

$23,236

245

0%

100

0

14

85

Mercer 22.2

6

24.6

20.5

42.9

0

$18,936

1427

74%

20

80

22

75

Middlesex 0

0

0

0

0

0

$18,714

2072

96%

0

0

10

83

Monmouth 10.1

4

8.1

27.7

13.2

6.9

$20,565

1028

90%

33

67

11

86

Morris 8

3

8.9

0

0

16.3

$25,177

876

85%

0

100

4

93

Ocean 0

0

0

0

0

0

$15,598

577

74%

0

0

4

94

Passaic 21.7

8

21.3

27.8

36.9

6.3

$16,048

2284

94%

43

57

22

75

Salem 0

0

0

0

0

0

$13,961

175

41%

0

0

17

82

Somerset 7.1

1

8.5

0

0

14.6

$25,111

789

80%

100

0

8

88

Sussex 16.1

1

16.8

0

31.2

0

$18,566

245

17%

100

0

1

97

Union 3.5

1

0

13.8

6.9 0

$19,660

4706

100%

0

100

24

73

Warren 0

0

0

0

0

0

$16,716

251

27%

0

0

3

96

Total 17.9 100 12.1

48.1

28.8

6.5

$18,153

1779

71%

57

43

18

79

Figure 2. Youth Age-Specific Homicide Rate

Figure 2. Youth Age-Specific Homicide Rate by New Jersey’s 21 Counties, 1989-1997

Tables 2 and 3 show the homicide rates and proportions among adolescents (15-19 years) and young adults (20-24 years) by county and race, gender, per-capita income, population density, urbanization index, and education. There was a significant negative correlation (p<0.05) between county-level youth (15-24 years) homicide rates and the county level of education of the youths. Particularly, African-American youth and male youth homicide rates had highly statistically significant (p<0.01) negative correlation with the county level of education measured by the 1990. There was a positive, statistically significant (p<0.01) correlation between county-level African-American youth homicide rate and the county-level urbanization index measured by the 1990 census. These strong correlations remained unchanged when Census 2000 measures of the county-level of education and urbanization indices were used. There was no statistically significant correlation between county-level white youth homicide rates and the urbanization index by using 1990 and 2000 U.S. Census indices. Figure 2, and Tables 2 and 3 show eight years (1989-1997) of average age-specific homicide rates by county, which also confirmed the correlation analyses findings: homicides among adolescents and young adults were committed more often in counties with a high urbanization index than counties with a low urbanization index. The highest peaks of youth homicide incidence rates were in Essex and Camden counties, which are highly urbanized (100% and 98% urbanization index, respectively; Tables 2 and 3) and have a greater African-American population than other counties (Tables 2 and 3).

Table 2. Adolescent (15-19 years) Homicide Rates and Proportions by County and Other Factors, NJ, 1997

Counties

Rate

% Distri­bution w

В

M F

PCI

Population Density/ Square Mile

Urban­ization Index

%<M2 Grade

%HS/ College Grad

15-19 Popu­lation

%B

%W

Atlantic

26.2

7

18

54.6

25.9

26.6

$16,016

368

68%

88

12

22

76

Bergen

0

0

0

0

0.0

0.0

$24,080

3351

100%

0

0

6

85

Burlington

0

0

0

0

0.0

0.0

$17,707

477

72%

0

0

19

78

Camden

51.3

31

29.3

118.8

93.7

6.2

$15,773

2233

98%

94

6

21

75

Cape May

0

0

0

0

0.0

0.0

$15,536

209

23%

0

100

8

91

Cumberland

10.1

2

0

44.2

0.0

20.6

$12,560

206

60%

100

0

21

77

Essex

17.5

17

0

35.4

26.3

8.0

$17,574

6008

100%

89

11

48

48

Gloucester

0

0

0

0

0.0

0.0

$15,207

678

82%

0

0

11

88

Hudson

11.5

7

0

56.6

22.4

0.0

$14,480

9145

100%

100

0

20

72

Hunterdon

0

0

0

0

0.0

0.0

$23,236

245

0%

0

0

3

95

Mercer 8.6

4

0

34.5

17.1

0.0

$18,936

1427

74%

100

0

23

74

Middlesex 6.4

6

2.8

34.5

12.4

0.0

$18,714

2072

96%

83

17

11

82

Monmouth 5.4

4

3.2

23.1

10.3

0.0

$20,565

1028

90%

100

0

11

86

Morris

0

0

0

0

0.0

0.0

$25,177

876

85%

0

0

4

91

Ocean 3.7

2

0

71.5

7.3

0.0

$15,598

577

74%

100

0

5

94

Passaic

17.9

11

21.2 12

29.4

6.1

$16,048

2284

94%

83

17

24

73

Salem

0

0

0

0

0.0

0.0

$13,961

175

41%

0

0

18

81

Somerset

0

0

0

0

0.0

0.0

$25,111

789

80%

0

0

9

86

Sussex

0

0

0

0

0.0

0.0

$18,566

245

17%

0

0

2

97

Union

17.1

9

0

64.1

26.6

7.0

$19,660

4706

100%

100

0

26

71

Warren

0

0

0

0

0.0

0.0

$16,716

251

27%

0

0

3

96

Total

10.8

100

4.2

39.9

17.9

3.2

$18,153

1779

71%

94

6

18

78

There was a negative, statistically not significant correlation between county-level homicide rates and county-level per-capita income.
The gender disparities in homicide incidence rates in Table 1 show that the risk is six times greater for male than female adolescents. These gender disparities in Table 1 are statistically significant (pO.Ol).
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Figure 3. Youth Homicide Rate by Race

Figure 3. Youth Homicide Rate by Race, Gender, and Years, New Jersey, 1989-1997

Table 3. Young Adult (20-24 years) Homicide Rates and Proportions by County and Other Factors, NJ, 1997

Counties

Rate

% Distri­bution w В M

F

PCI

Population Density/ Square Mile

Urban­ization Index

%0-12 Grade

%HS/ College Grad

20-24 Popu­lation

%B

%W
Atlantic 28

5

28.7

31.1

41.4

14.1

$16,016

368

68%

0

100

21

77

Bergen 0

0

0

0

0

0

$24,080

3351

100%

0

0

7

88

Burlington 0

0

0

0

0

0

$17707

477

72%

0

0

22

76

Camden 56.5

19

66.9

32.5

92.1

21.1

$15,773

2233

98%

88

12

19

78

Cape May 43

2

48.1

0

40.7

45.7

$15,536

209

23%

100

0

7

92

Cumberland 48.8

5

33.5 99

46.7

51.1

$12,560

206

60%

100

0

22

77

Essex 65.5

38

8.6

129.3

121.7

8.3

$17,574

6008

100%

50

50

46

51

Gloucester 7.2

1

8.2

0

14.5

0

$15,207

678

82%

100

0

9

90

Hudson 10.4

5

11.1

14.9

15.3

5.3

$14,480

9145

100%

75

25

18

75

Hunterdon 17.7

1

19.9

0

31.6

0

$23,236

245

0%

100

0

14

85

Mercer 22.2

6

24.6

20.5

42.9

0

$18,936

1427

74%

20

80

22

75

Middlesex 0

0

0

0

0

0

$18,714

2072

96%

0

0

10

83

Monmouth 10.1

4

8.1

27.7

13.2

6.9

$20,565

1028

90%

33

67

11

86

Morris 8

3

8.9

0

0

16.3

$25,177

876

85%

0

100

4

93

Ocean 0

0

0

0

0

0

$15,598

577

74%

0

0

4

94

Passaic 21.7

8

21.3

27.8

36.9

6.3

$16,048

2284

94%

43

57

22

75

Salem 0

0

0

0

0

0

$13,961

175

41%

0

0

17

82

Somerset 7.1

1

8.5

0

0

14.6

$25,111

789

80%

100

0

8

88

Sussex 16.1

1

16.8

0

31.2

0

$18,566

245

17%

100

0

1

97

Union 3.5

1

0

13.8

6.9 0

$19,660

4706

100%

0

100

24

73

Warren 0

0

0

0

0

0

$16,716

251

27%

0

0

3

96

Total 17.9 100 12.1

48.1

28.8

6.5

$18,153

1779

71%

57

43

18

79

Figure 3 shows that race-specific and age-specific homicide incidence rates among youth in New Jersey did not change remarkably from 1989 through 1997, except among African-American adolescents for whom the homicide incidence rate escalated consistently over the years from 1989 to 1997 in New Jersey. The trend analyses by gender in Figure 4 showed that the homicide rates for young adult men declined since 1993, while those for adolescent boys escalated since 1990. The homicide rates for adolescents and young adult girls declined slightly since 1991 (Figure 4). These changes in the trend was not statistically significant.
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Figure 4. Percent Distribution of Youth Age

Figure 4. Percent Distribution of Youth Age 15-24 Years Homicide by Method of Killing and Years, NJ, 1989-1997

Table 4. Youth Homicide Rates and Proportions, New Jersey, 1997

15-19 Years

20-24 Years

Urbanization

Counties

Rate

% Black

% White

Rate       % Black

% White

Index

Atlantic 26.2

22

76

28

21

77

68%

Bergen 0

6

85

0

7

88

100%

Burlington 0

19

78

0

22

76

72%

Camden 51.3

21

75

56.5

19

78

98%

Cape May 0

8

91

43

7

92

23%

Cumberland 10.1

21

77

48.8

22

77

60%

Essex 17.5

48

48

65.5

46

51

100%

Gloucester 0

11

88

7.2

9

90

82%

Hudson 11.5

20

72

10.4

18

75

100%

Hunterdon 0

3

95

17.7

14

85

0%

Mercer 8.6

23

74

22.2

22

75

74%

Middlesex 6.4

11

82

0

10

83

96%

Monmouth 5.4

11

86

10.1

11

86

90%

Morris 0

4

91

8

4

93

85%

Ocean 3.7

5

94

0

4

94

74%

Passaic 17.9

24

73

21.7

22

75

94%

Salem 0

18

81

0

17

82

41%

Somerset 0

9

86

7.1 CO

88

80%

Sussex 0

2

97

16.1

1

97

17%

Union 17.1

26

71

3.5

24

73

100%

Warren 0

3

96

0

3

96

27%

Total 10.8

18

78

17.9

18

79

71%

W = white; В = black; M = male; F = female; PCI = per-capita income

Firearms and stabbings were the most common murder weapons for committing homicide among youths in New Jersey (Figure 5). Sixty percent of all youth homicide was committed by firearms in New Jersey in 1997 (Figure 5). For African-American youths, the firearm homicide incidence rate was 33.8 per 100,000 populations in New Jersey in 1997 (Figure 6). The rate of homicide by firearms increased from 56% in 1989 to 60% in 1997 (Figure 5). But stabbing, the second major type of homicide decreased from 18% in 1989 to 10% in 1997 (Figure 5). The legal firearms homicide rate remained the same between 1989 and 1997. kamagra soft tablets

Figure 5. Youth Age 15-24 Years Homicide Rate

Figure 5. Youth Age 15-24 Years Homicide Rate by Method of Killing by Race, NJ, 1989-1997