There are conflicting reports regarding the trend of homicide among youths in the United States.
Fingerhut et al. reported that homicide rates declined among 15-24-year-olds in the United States from 1993 through 1995. The most rapid declines have been reported among African Americans in the United States from 1987-1995. The National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center-Professionals reported that the adolescent homicide rate has steadily dropped since 1993. The reasons for such national decline were associated with the number of students carrying guns. As well, the arrest rates for weapons offenses were found to have decreased by more than 20% from 1995-1997. However, in our study, the homicide rates among white adolescents and among white and African-American youths remained unchanged in New Jersey from 1989 through 1997. Among African Americans adolescents, the trend of homicide increased consistently in New Jersey from 1989 through 1997. In contrast to previous studies reporting that firearm risks declined in the nation, the firearm risks to adolescents and young adults have not decreased in New Jersey.
Firearms were the major weapons used to commit homicide in New Jersey. Sixty percent of all homicides in New Jersey in 1997 were committed with firearms. Homicides committed by firearms in New Jersey increased from 56% in 1989 to 60% in 1997. Our findings are in agreement with several reports that firearm-related mortality was the major component of homicide in the United States, accounting for over 70% of all homicide deaths. The increase in the rate of firearm homicides has increase in the rate of firearm homicides has been related to keeping a gun in the home. kamagra jelly uk
Youths are disproportionately at an increased risk of homicide victimization in New Jersey. If the existing trend in homicide victimization continues, African-American adolescents will overtake African-American young adults as the leading category in age-specific homicide rates in New Jersey. Thus, there is a pronounced trend toward younger victimization by homicide in New Jersey. It was reported that high-school dropouts are at the highest risk of homicide victimization.
Significant (p<0.01) racial disparity exists in New Jersey, with African Americans disproportionately represented among homicide victims. The New Jersey 1997 white/African-American racial disparity was 10 times higher among adolescents, a disparity which is higher than the 1997 U.S. racial disparity (i.e., a homicide rate ratio of 6.8). However, the racial disparity of the white/African-American homicide rate (with a ratio of 4 for New Jersey youths in 1997) is less than the corresponding 1997 U.S. rate ratio of 8.3. Nationally, compared to whites, African-American victims are greatly over-represented in homicide involving arguments or drugs. Nationwide, African Americans are less often than whites the victims of sex-related homicides, homicide by poisoning and workplace killings. Race patterns among offenders are similar to those of victims nationally, except that 60% of African-American offenders are involved in felony murders. From 1976 to 1999, 86% of white victims were killed by whites and 94% of African-American victims were killed by African Americans. canadian discount pharmacy
The New Jersey gender disparity of male/female homicide incidence rates is statistically significant (p<0.01). Among adolescents, boys were six times more likely than girls to be murdered in New Jersey in 1997; this finding is consistent with national data. Among young adults, boys were four times more likely than girls to be murdered in New Jersey and six times more likely to be murdered nationwide in 1997. A significant increase in homicide risk for males has been documented nationally and associated with male violent lifestyles (membership in gangs, carrying and using lethal weapons, and substance abuse). Girls were the victims of sex-related crimes. National figures demonstrate that 65% of the victims and their perpetrators in homicide were males, 22% were male offenders and female homicide victims, 10% were female perpetrators and male homicide victims, and 2% were female offenders and female homicide victims.
Some of the environmental factors that have been linked to violence include poverty, media exposure to violence, and disenfranchisement of young people in society. The correlation analyses in our study also showed a statistically significant (p<0.05) negative correlation between county-level youth homicide rate and the level of education of the county. Particularly, this finding at the county level was highly statistically significant (p<0.01) for the African-American and male youth homicide rate and the county level of education. There was a positive, statistically significant (p<0.05) correlation between the county-level African-American youth homicide rate and the county level of urbanization index. These correlation analyses suggest that greater urbanization and lower education level are risk factors for committing homicide in New Jersey counties.