Concomitant Medications
The most commonly used vasoactive drugs were dopamine (94 admissions [44.1%]) and epinephrine (32 [15.0%]), followed by vasopressin (22 [10.3%]) and phenoxy benzamine (13 [6.1%). Nephrotoxic medications (including aminoglycosides, vancomycin, acyclovir, ganciclovir, ampho tericin, cidofovir, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and sirolimus) were used in 58 (27.2%) of the admissions. Anticoagulants and plateletlowering drugs (unfractionated heparin, low molecularweight heparin, warfarin) were used in less than 10% of admissions (21 and 22 admissions, respectively).
Clinical Outcomes
Low cardiac output syndrome was observed in 166 (77.9%) of the admissions. In 162 admissions, the patient had an AVO2 difference greater than 30%, and in 29 admissions there was an increase in lactate greater than 2 mmol/L (Table 1). In 25 of these admissions, (11.7% of the total), both criteria were recorded. Arrhythmia during milrinone use was documented in 82 (38.5%) of the admissions and thrombocytopenia in 27 (12.7%) (Table 1). kamagra soft tablets
Factors Independently Associated with Outcomes
Stepwise backward regression showed that 3 milrinone related factors were independently associated with outcomes. First, there was a trend toward an association between higher average dose rate and low cardiac output syndrome (p = 0.053). Second, longer duration of milrinone therapy was associated with low cardiac output syndrome (p < 0.001). However, no statistically signficiant association was found between milrinione dosing and thrombocytopenia or arrhythmias (Table 3). None of the interaction terms tested was significant.
Table 3. Results of Multiple Logistic Regression

Pearson Correlation Coefficient 
OR (95% CI) 
Low cardiac output syndrome, defined as AVO_{2}

2.1053 0.752 X^{2}= 14.8, df = 8, p 
0.21 (0.9869.15) 2.06 
Milrinone duration (cumulative) Predicting outcome 
0.0114 

Milrinone average dose rate Dopamine dose Phenoxybenzamine dose 
0.807 X^{2}= 2.71, df = 8, p= 0.95 


0.00313 0.937 X^{2}= 4.57, df = 8, p= 0.802 
