Data for this study were extracted from a subset of the participants with diabetes whose glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration exceeded 6.5%. Participants were enrolled in the Baltimore Cardiovascular Partnership study, which tests the effect of patient education on diabetes control. The period of enrollment spanned from April 1, 2005, to August 31, 2006.

For this substudy, we selected all those subjects (n = 463) who completed the Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT) and the Self-Care Activity Assessment; who provided a self-report of their so-ciodemographics; who were living in the community; and whose medical charts were reviewed.

Study Measures

We used the Knowledge Test. The test score was calculated as the sum of correct answers on 14 multiple-choice test questions that assessed diabetes-related knowledge.

To assess the subjects’ awareness of the importance of foot care, we posed this question: “On how many of the last seven days did you check your feet?”

The test contains 23 items. The first 14 items are appropriate for people who do not use insulin. All 23 questions can be administered to people who do use insulin. The 23-item test takes approximately 15 minutes to complete. The test comprises multiple-choice questions pertaining to diabetic health such as diet, exercise, diabetes-related medical conditions, and insulin.

Besides questions about diabetes, patients are also asked questions about self-care in relation to their behavior in the previous seven days at the time of enrollment on the topics of diet, exercise, blood sugar testing, foot care, and cigarette smoking.

Data Analysis

A Microsoft Office Access database was created to facilitate data management, and trained personnel (our colleagues N. Onwudiwe and N. Samant) entered the information into the database. Forms within the database included information that we had collected about patients’ demographics and their responses to the Diabetes Knowledge Test. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the predictors of the study measures. Multiple regression models were used to perform multivariate analysis. SAS version 8.2 (Cary, NC) was used to analyze all data. kamagra uk