Dependence Category

There is generally consistent evidence supporting the importance of family history in the development of substance use disorders. The published evidence suggests that those with a family history of substance abuse are more vulnerable towards alcohol abuse and dependence; however, it has also been shown for other drugs, particularly for opioids . Thus, it is […]

Long term administration of opioids for chronic nonmalig-nant pain is controversial because, like any other potential therapy, long term therapeutic opioid use must be evaluated in terms of safety and efficacy. In terms of efficacy, some surveys suggest that patients with diverse nonmalig-nant pain syndromes attain greater than 50% relief of pain when treated with […]

This study shows that severe dependence occurs with oral opioids, although it is important to recognize that a great number of patients present with many other substance use disorders, including multiple drug use. Almost 80% of patients in this study met DSM-III-R criteria for severe dependence (ie, met at least seven criteria), and 43% met […]

Pharmacological treatment(s) in hospital Twenty-eight (48%) patients were withdrawn from their oral opioids by substituting a tapering regimen of methadone. Another 23 (40%) patients received methadone plus another drug treatment (16 on diazepam, four on clonidine and three on imipramine), and seven patients did not receive any pharmacotherapy. The mean daily dose of methadone received […]

Family history of substance use disorders The population studied had a strong family history of substance use. Fifty-two per cent of patients reported at least one close family member having problems with alcohol and/or other drugs. Alcohol problems were present in 31% of patients’ fathers.

Severity of opioid dependence: Figure 3 shows the number and type of DSM-III-R criteria for opioid dependence met by patients. Forty-six patients (79%) met more than seven DSM-III-R criteria, and 43% met all nine. This finding, interpreted together with the fact that hospital admission was required due to their opioid dependence, indicates the severity of […]

Descriptive statistics such as means, ranges and percentages were calculated. Drug doses were calculated based on the average of the doses reported. Duration of use and duration of drug problems were calculated by using the highest number reported by the patients. Reliability testing of the data collection was performed in 11% of patient charts. Discrepancies […]