model to evaluate 'symptoms' (part 1)

The major aim of heart failure therapy is to prolong life. A secondary objective is to improve the quality of life of patients by reducing symptoms of heart failure. These symptoms include dyspnea, fatigue, edema and exercise intolerance, the degree of which varies with the severity of the disease. In patients the efficacy of treatment is often assessed, at least in part, by measuring exercise tolerance, but this has not been done in animals.
The cardiomyopathic (CM) hamster was first described more than 30 years ago, and numerous studies have since contributed to characterize its pathology. It is a genetic disease affecting 100% of carrying hamsters. Its course can be divided into four phases: prenecrosis; necrosis; hypertrophy and dilation; and the terminal stage, characterized by severe subcutaneous edema, and lung and liver congestion. It is a widely used model of dilated cardiomyopathy and failure, with a pathology mimicking the human form of idiopathic cardiomyopathy. Although survival studies are very valuable and easy to perform, the CM hamsters also present symptoms of heart failure that can be quantified and used to study the effects of therapies. We reported previously that increased body weight due to subcutaneous edema could be used to identify the severe terminal phase of the disease. CM hamsters, like normal hamsters, run spontaneously if provided with a wheel in their cage. We therefore hypothesized that the distance spontaneously run every day by CM hamsters would be limited by heart failure symptoms and that this could be used as a marker of severity of failure. You will soon see how easy it is to start the treatment if you have a reliable pharmacy offering Asthma Inhalers for sale or any other medications you may need for the specific medical issue you may have that requires treatment.