Blood Pressure


Compared to other ethnicities in the United States, African Americans incur disproportionate deleterious health consequences of tobacco smoking evidenced by higher rates of mortality due to tobacco-related diseases, such as coronary heart disease, stroke, and possibly respiratory cancers. While ethnic differences in nicotine and cotinine metabolism, tobacco-use trajectory (i.e. onset and progression of smoking behavior) and African-American preference for menthol smoking have been reported, the reasons for this health disparity have not yet been fully elucidated. This excess in mortality is preventable and largely attributable to tobacco addiction, which typically begins in youth.

As such, a better understanding of ethnic differences in smoking behavior among adolescents is critically needed. Young smokers, like adults, maintain smoking behavior for pharmacological reasons, such as reinforcement from nicotine. Total puff volume per cigarette determines blood levels of smoke constituents and is linked to health consequences of smoking in adult smokers. Several studies have established a relationship between cigarette smoking. A large-scale population-based study showed that increase in carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) saturation was associated with increased mortality from heart disease, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive lung disease. COHb is directly related to exhaled CO in the absence of obstructive respiratory disease.

However, relatively little is known about qualitative and quantitative aspects of smoking behavior (topography) and their pathophysiological correlates in teenage smokers. Furthermore, the few studies that have examined such responses have not focused on African-American participants. Compared to adults in other studies, mean puff volume and CO boosts in teenagers who smoke only a few cigarettes per day were similar, but teenagers had higher increases in HR. As biobehavioral responses that represent both progression along the addictive cycle and potential correlates of the toxic effects of tobacco constituents, such physiologic responses to smoking warrant ethnic comparison during the early phases of smoking, before decades of exposure to toxins. official canadian pharmacy

The aim of this study was thus to record acute changes in cardiovascular parameters as potential precursors of both increased vulnerability to ongoing addiction and consequent future health risk in a biethnic group of dependent adolescent menthol cigarette smokers requesting treatment. It is important to study adolescents who smoke daily, since they comprise a group at higher risk of experiencing the negative health effects because of long-term, dependence-related smoking. Because adult menthol smokers had significantly larger puff volume and cotinine (primary metabolite of nicotine) concentrations than those who smoked regular non-mentholated cigarettes, ethnic differences in physiological responses to smoking can be obscured by ethnic preferences for mentholated cigarettes. These observations, along with the resurgence of menthol smoking among teenagers in our area, prompted us to limit the current analysis to menthol smokers only. We hypothesized that smoking would induce higher increases in HR and blood pressure (BP), carbon monoxide (CO) boost, and greater puff topography in African-American adolescent smokers compared to European Americans.